Modern Operating System Technical Assignment Help
Introduction to Modern Operating System Assignment Services
Modern Operating System
Microsoft created the first window operating system in 1975. After introducing the Microsoft Windows OS, Bill Gates and Paul Allen had the vision to take personal computers to the next level. Therefore, they introduced the MS-DOS in 1981; however, it was very difficult for the person to understand its cryptic commands.
A modern operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer's memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer's language. Operating system (OS), program that manages a computer’s resources, especially the allocation of those resources among other programs. Typical resources include the central processing unit (CPU), computer memory, file storage, input/output (I/O) devices, and network connections.
An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer. Modern operating systems provide a general-purpose mechanism for processing data larger than available main memory called virtual memory. Transparent to the program, swapping moves parts of the data back and forth from disk as needed. An operating system is other than saying it is the software that runs in kernel mode—and even that is not always true. Part of the problem is that operating systems perform two essentially unrelated functions: providing application programmers (and application programs, naturally) a clean abstract set of resources instead of the messy hardware ones and managing these hardware resources.
Modern operating systems allow multiple programs to be in memory and run at the same time. Operating system is software that is required in order to run application programs and utilities. It works as a bridge to perform better interaction between application programs and hardware of the computer.
Objectives of Operating System
To hide the details of the hardware resources from the users. To provide users a convenient interface to use the computer system. To act as an intermediary between the hardware and its users, making it easier for the users to access and use other resources.
Features of Operating System:
- Protected and Supervisor Mode. Dual-mode operation is a feature supported by modern CPUs.
- Program Execution.
- Manipulation of the File System.
- Handling I/O Operations.
- Error Handling.
- Resource Allocation.
- Information and Resource Protection.
Operating systems also provide network services and file-sharing capabilities—even the ability to share resources between systems of different types, such as Windows and UNIX. Such sharing has become feasible through the introduction of network protocols such as the Internet’s TCP/IP.
Types of Operating System:
- Batch Operating System: A batch operating system grabs all programs and data in the batch form and then processes them. The main aim of using a batch processing system is to decrease the setup time while submitting similar jobs to the CPU. Examples- Payroll System, Bank Invoice System, Transactions Process, Daily Report, Research Segment, Billing System
- Time-sharing Operating System: Time-sharing is a logical extension of multiprogramming. The CPU executes multiple jobs by switching, among them, but the switches occur so frequently that the users can interact with each program while it is running.
- Distributed Operating System: A distributed operating system allows the distribution of entire systems on the couples of centre processors, and it serves on multiple real-time products as well as multiple users.
- Network Operating system: An operating system that provides connectivity among several autonomous computers is called a network operating system. A configuration for a network operating system is a collection of personal computers.
- Real-Time Operating System: A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that runs multi-threaded applications and can meet real-time deadlines. They help isolate tasks and give you the ability to run them concurrently.
- Embedded Operating System: An embedded operating system is a specialized OS for embedded systems. It aims to perform with certainty specific tasks regularly that help the device operate. An embedded operating system often has limited features and functions.
- Multiprogramming Operating System: An embedded operating system is a specialized OS for embedded systems. It aims to perform with certainty specific tasks regularly that help the device operate. An embedded operating system often has limited features and functions.
- Multi-Processor Operating System: Multiprocessor operating system utilizes multiple processors, which are connected with physical memory, computer buses, clocks, and peripheral devices.
- Desktop Operating System: The control program which operates in the machine of a user is referred to as a desktop system. It is also called a Client Operating System.
- Cluster Operating System: Cluster systems are similar to parallel systems. Both use multiple CPUs. The primary difference is that clustered systems are made up of two or more independent systems linked together.
There are few mores operating systems types to understand in deep but that’s all for now.
Modern operating system questions and answers:
Question 1: What are the different operating systems?
Answer: Some of the common types of operating systems:
- Batched operating systems
- Distributed operating systems
- Timesharing operating systems
- Multi-programmed operating systems
- Real-time operating systems
Question 2: How Buffering can improve the performance of a Computer system?
Answer: If C.P.U and I/O devices are nearly same at speed, the buffering helps in making the C.P.U and the I/O devices work at full speed in such a way that C.P.U and the I/O devices never sit idle at any moment.
Normally the C.P.U is much faster than an input device. In this case the C.P.U always faces an empty input buffer and sits idle waiting for the input device which is to read a record into the buffer. For output, the C.P.U continues to work at full speed till the output buffer is full and then it starts waiting.
Thus buffering proves useful for those jobs that have a balance between computational work and I/O operations. In other cases, buffering scheme may not work well.
Question 3: What is the difference between Job and Process?
Answer: A process refers to a program under execution. This program may be an application or system program. Job means an application program and it is not a system program.
Question 4: What are the advantages of multiprogramming?
Answer: Advantages of multiprogramming are −
- Increased CPU Utilization − Multiprogramming improves CPU utilization as it organizes a number of jobs where CPU always has one to execute.
- Increased Throughput − Throughput means total number of programs executed over a fixed period of time. In multiprogramming, CPU does not wait for I/O for the program it is executing, thus resulting in an increased throughput.
- Shorter Turnaround Time − Turnaround time for short jobs is improved greatly in multiprogramming.
- Improved Memory Utilization − In multiprogramming, more than one program resides in main memory. Thus memory is optimally utilized.
- Increased Resources Utilization − In multiprogramming, multiple programs are actively competing for resources resulting in higher degree of resource utilization.
- Multiple Users − Multiprogramming supports multiple users.
Question 5: What is kernel?
Answer: Kernel is the core and most important part of a computer operating system which provides basic services for all parts of the OS.
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